: Carbon pricing Global costs edit According to a literature assessment by Barker. By convention, estimates of emission valigia scontate 1 classe reduction costs do not include the benefits of avoided climate change damages. Leakage is a type of "spillover" effect of mitigation policies. The discount rate is used by economists to compare economic effects occurring at different times. World Economic and Social Survey 2009: Promoting Development, Saving the Planet (PDF).
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5 In cost-benefit analysis, both costs and benefits are assessed economically. 36 Regulatory and policy risk - if the public incentives provided by a state may not be actually provided, or if provided, then not for the full length of the investment. JRC Technical Note number JRC65918. 36 Loan guarantees provided by international public financial institutions can be useful to reduce the risk to private lenders. (2007) Debating Climate Economics: The Stern Review. (2001:409) gave the example of China, which has made structural reforms with the aim of increasing GDP. The actual effects of removing fossil fuel subsidies would depend heavily on the type of subsidy removed and the availability and economics of other energy sources. Web version: ipcc 1 maint: Extra text: authors list ( link ) Albritton,.L.;. 38 In reality, there is no single decision maker. In many developing countries, Solow's definition might not be viewed as being acceptable, since it could place a constraint on their ambitions for development. (2001:419 poor information is recognized as a barrier to improved energy efficiency or reduced emissions.
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